Monday, December 29, 2014

All About Garcinia cambogia And Hydroxycitric acid (HCA)



Dr. Oz: Garcinia-Cambogia-Food
Garcinia cambogia
General Name: Garcinia cambogia

Category: Herbs & Supplements

Synonyms

Bitter kola, brindal berry, brindall berry, brindleberry, Cambodia, Camboge, Cambogia gummi-guta L., Cambogia gutta L., Cambogia gutta Lindl., CitriLean, CitriMax®, citrin, Citrinate, Criton K, desoxygambogenin, gambodge, gamboge (French), gambogellic acid, gambogenic acid, gambogin, gambogenin, gambogenin dimethyl acetal, Gambogium, gambooge, ganburin, Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia bracteata, Garcinia Cambogi, Garcinia Cambogia, Garcinia hanburyi, Garcinia hunburyi, Garcinia indica, Garcinia kola, Garcinia mangostana, Garcinia multiflora, Garcinia neglecta, Garcinia puat, Garcinia pyrifera, garushinia kanbogia (Japanese), geelhars (Dutch), Gomaguta, Gomma guta, Gomme Gutte, gomme-gutte (French), gorikapuli, Gumme gutte, Gummigut, Gummigutt (German), Gummiguttbaum (German), gummi-gutti (Italian), gummiguttr√¶ (Danish), gummiharpiks (Danish), Gummi-resina gutti, Gutta gamba, guttegom (Dutch), Gutti, Guttiferae (family), hydroxycitrate, (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), isogambogenin, isomoreollin B, korakkaipuli (Sinhalese), Malabar tamarind, Mangostana cambogia (Gaertn. ), mangosteen, Mangoustanier du Cambodge (French), morellin dimethyl acetal, moreollic acid, rubber resin, Tamarinier de Malabar (French), uppagi.

Background

Garcinia (Garcinia cambogia) is a diminutive purple fruit native to India and Southeast Asia. It is used as a weight loss aid, but the evidence is inconclusive. The actual rind is rich in hydroxycitric acid (HCA) and has been used for centuries all through Southeast Asia as a food preservative, flavoring agent and carminative (induces bannissement of gas from stomach or intestines). According to Indian folk tradition, Garcinia cambogia is used for rheumatism and bowel complaints.

Neither acute nor persistent toxicity is reported with regular consumption of garcinia products as either meals or tonics. These products have been used routinely in the coastal areas of South Asian countries for centuries and they continue to be consumed in large amounts. There is preliminary evidence for the utilization of garcinia in exercise performance and weight loss, although current, available evidence is actually mixed.

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Evidence

DISCLAIMER: These uses have been tested in humans or creatures. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and really should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Exercise performance: Hydroxycitric acid, a constituent in garcinia, may increase fat metabolism and enhance exercise performance. Additional study is needed to verify these results.
Grade: C
Weight loss: Evidence supporting hydroxycitric acid, the active component in Garcinia cambogia, for weight loss is mixed. Additional study is warranted in order to clarify early findings.
Grade: C

Tradition

WARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below utilizes are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been tried and tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these the weather is potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses which are not listed below.
Anthelmintic (expels worms), antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, appetite suppressant, bowel disorders, bronchodilator (relaxes the muscles of the airways), cancer, carminative (reduces gas), catarrh (inflammation of mucous membrane), cathartic (produces bowel movements), obstipation, diabetes, diuretic, dropsy (edema), dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), edema (swelling), Ebola pathogen (Garcinia kola), flavoring agent, food uses, gastric ulcer prophylaxis, hepatoprotection (liver protection), HIV, influenza (Garcinia kola), intestinal motility disorders, menstrual disorders, rheumatism, sore throat, tumors, urinary tract disorders, uterus disorders.

Dosing

Adults (faster than 18 years old)

Dosing evidence is conflicting, and there is no proven effective dosage for garcinia. There is sufficient available scientific evidence suggesting that intake of hydroxycitric acid at levels up to 2, 800 milligrams per day is safe for human being consumption. Garcinia has been well tolerated for up to 12 weeks in available human being trials.

For exercise performance, 250 milligrams of hydroxycitric acid capsules given for five days may be beneficial. However , a dose of 3, 000 milligrams was not efficient in three doses daily for three days in adult untrained males. For losing weight fast, 1, 500 milligrams of hydroxycitric acid per day (three times daily because 500-milligram-caplets) given in combination with a high-fiber, low-energy diet has been studied with no impact on weight loss. However , hydroxycitric acid given three times daily 30-60 minutes before foods for a total of 4, 667 milligrams per day reduced body weight index as well as body mass index in 60 moderately obese subjects.

Children (under eighteen years old)

There is no proven safe or effective dose for garcinia within children, and use is not recommended.

Safety

DISCLAIMER: Many complementary techniques tend to be practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of nationwide organizations. However , this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to restricted research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.

Allergies

Avoid in people with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to Garcinia cambogia.

Side Effects and Alerts

Garcinia has been well tolerated for up to 12 weeks in available human tests. Hydroxycitric acid from the rind given by mouth is likely safe in recommended dosages.

Garcinia may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes (high blood sugar) or hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), and in those taking medicines, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Serum glucose levels may need to be supervised by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, and medication adjustments may be necessary.

Rhabdomyolysis (serious and potentially fatal disease involving degeneration of skeletal muscle ) continues to be reported three hours after ingestion of a weight-loss herbal medicine containing mother huang (ephedrine), guarana (active alkaloid caffeine), chitosan, Gymnena sylvestre, Garcinia cambogia (50% HCA), and chromium. Since there were multiple substances, it cannot solely be attributed to Garcinia cambogia. Nevertheless, use cautiously in patients with a historical past of rhabdomyolysis or in patients taking HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors ("statins") because they may increase the risk for rhabdomyolysis.

Avoid in patients with Alzheimer's disease along with other dementia syndromes due to the theoretical possibility of forming acetylcholine in the brain.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Garcinia is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a insufficient available scientific evidence.

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

Garcinia may lower glucose levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Patients taking medicines for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by a qualified physician, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.

Taking hydroxycitric acid with statin medications, such as atorvastatin calcium (Lipitor®), may increase the risk of rhabdomyolysis (disease concerning the degeneration of skeletal muscle). An incidence of rhabdomyolysis was reported within a case report of a patient taking a weight-loss herbal medicine that contained half hydroxycitric acid.

Interactions with Herbs & Dietary Supplements

Garcinia may lower glucose levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood sugar levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.

The combination of HCA-SX (calcium/potassium-bound hydroxycitric acid complex) with niacin-bound chromium or Gymnema sylvestre may boost the effects on weight loss. Consult with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, before combing treatments.

Attribution

This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature, and was peer-reviewed as well as edited by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Tracee Abrams, PharmD (University of Rhode Island); Chi Dam, PharmD (Northeastern University); Catherine DeFranco Kirkwood, MPH, CCCJS-MAC (MD Anderson Cancer Center); Nicole Giese, MICROSOFT (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Tamara Milkin, PharmD (Northeastern University); Kristen Rafuse, BS (Northeastern University); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts Common Hospital).

Bibliography

DISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a comprehensive systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative as well as complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com.

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